THey that haue bleſſed their time

with drawing into their owne bo-

ſomes the conſideration of the

world and her mutabilities; and

kept them there , to ſtrenghten

their reaſon againſt the vanity &

waywardneſſe of their affections

and paſſions, know already,I may offend opinion,but

not truth, vndertaking as impertinent a worke, as he

that intended to prayſe Hercules : to theſe I addreſſe

not my ſelf,vnleſſe they wil pleaſe to perfect me,ſince

I cannot them. But to thoſe I am directed, that ei-

ther the ſmyles of Fortune haue depriued of the true

knowledge of the condition of man , or youth hath

not yet ripened ; or ſuch vulgar and earthly crea-

tures, whoſe iudgement dazeled with beholding the

outward ſplendor of Fortunes Minions (the miſera-

bleſt of all) cannot or will not ſee with what terrible

cares and diſcontentments, the purple robe is lined.

     I know, but feare not, the danger of cheriſhing

and defending ſo vnwelcome a gueſt as ſadneſſe; ſo

ſhunned, ſo abhorred: For ſince I am well aſſured,                            ||



they haue condemned rather her countenance,then

her ſelfe : and that both her Iudge, Iury, and hang-

man, hath bin that aerie monſter Opinion; that ta-

keth all vpon truſt, and anſwers nothing with rea-

ſon; I was the rather inclyned to be her friend, be-

cauſe opinion was her enemy; the firſt proofe of her

goodnes, ſince ſhe is hated, by ſo falſe and obſtinate

an enemy to wiſdome and Iudgement.

     Firſt then, becauſe our humane weakneſſe, and

chiefely thoſe that I deſire to inſtruct, vnderſtand

beſt by contraryes; as health is beſt knowne by

ſickneſſe, plenty by want, it is fit I ſhew them what

mirth is made of : and ouer what a troupe ſhe com-

mands ; that beholding her , and her band diſrobed

and anatomized, wearie and aſhamed of the ſight,

they may by putting off their preiudicat obſtinacies,

be made firſt hearers, and conſequently obeyors, of

a worthier conductor.

     That mirth is a naturall quality of mans, I deny

not, but withall, I think it one of thoſe that he hath

little cause to boaſt of; it is true that he makes mirth

and ſadneſſe the ballance of his affections and paſ-

ſions, and is wayed by them : thus hee accounts

his winnings and loſings, and the ſame is expreſſed

in ſadneſſe or mirth : but whether moſt of theſe ſup-

poſed winners, are not rather betrayed, then ſuppor-

ted ; looſened , diſordered , and corrupted ; then

ſtrengthned, grounded, & inſtructed, I think there is

no man that hath well obſerued himſelfe, and his

paſſages conſiderately, but will affirme. Who

can doubt of this, that knowes the ſlightnes of her

compoſition? children make her of babies, and

hobby-horſes : yong men of ſports, hawkes, horſes,                          ||



dogs, or worſe : old men of riches, Stateſmen of a-

dorers, honour, and aduancement; Women of gay

clothes, many louers, and flattering glaſſes : it is one

God they adore, though worſhipped in ſeuerall

ſhapes : and though the difference amongſt them

makes them deſpiſers of one anothers choice; yet to

the vnintereſſed beholder, they play al at one game,

though not all for one ſumme. Et quae veneraris et

quae deſpicis, vnus exaequabit cinis.

     Wee haue touched the ayme, and end : Let vs

now ſee the purſuers and adorers of mirth; and they

that make her the goddeſſe of their actions, a people

either ſo light and imperciptible , as nothing can

come beyond their ſenſes : or ſo opinionatiue and

obſtinate, or rather ſo drunke with pleaſure, as they

will not knowe, what they may and muſt: or a third

ſort, that clap myrth between them and their con-

ſciences for feare of corraſiues, that keepe her vp

like a ball, and run after her, to bee the further off

from themſelues, who might know, though Vinum,

cantus, ſomnus, commotiunculas illas primas, non raro

ſanarunt irae doloris, amoris at nunquam agritudinem,

quae radices egit et fixit pedem, to caracterize theſe

further then in generality, were needleſſe: for what

ſhall the picture need, where the originall is ſo com-

mon? with what other brothell-houſes, and

Tauerns ſtuffed? Voluptas, humile, ſeruile, imbecillem,

caducam; cuius Statio et formices[1] et popinae ſunt, what

are the inhabitants of theaters,meetings, feaſts, try-

umphes, but ſuch as either acknowledge no God ſo

willingly as Mirth and Pleaſure ; or ſuch as dare not

come home into themſelues, for feare of their er-

rors and miſcarriage?                                                                           ||



     In the meane time, O poore reaſon, at how baſe

a price are thou ſold? Or art thou but a name with-

out an eſſence? Or a broken Reed that the will of

man dares not ſtay it ſelfe vpon, for feare of falling?

Or els what a blue-eyed choyſe is theirs, that for the

moſt idle, momentary, and ſicke effects of mirth,

and pleaſure, impawne not onely their time, (which

is vnredeemeable) but themſelues, which they

thinke too well ſold to repurchaſe.

     But now it is fit I haſten to them, who ſeeke not

mirth, but are ſought of her : for ſuch is the luſt of

Fortunes benefits, as whileſt the body feeleth her

ſelfe able to purchaſe her deſires, and to gorge her

ſenſes,ſhe abandons herſelfe to all ſenſualities, and

reioyceth in her owne fulneſſe : to you then, vpon

whom none but fayre winds haue euer blowne in

this careire of your ſuppoſed happineſſe : can

you ſee for all your high and ouertopping places,

your end and reſting place? Or are you not rather

the arrowes of the Omnipotent arme, that are yet

flying, not at yours, but as his marke : and are no

more owners of your owne beginnings ? In the

meane time effeminated with your proſperity, and

as it were ſtill ſucking vpon the breſt of Fortune,

if ſhe turnes her backe and retires, how miſerable

doth ſhee leaue you? Still bleating after the teat,

and like thoſe nice creatures, that become tame with

taking their bread from others hands, vnable to ad-

miniſter to your ſelues the leaſt helpe or comfort.

     Wee doe ſee that Nature and all her producti-

ons ſupport them and her ſelfe by inceſſant chan-

ges, and reuolutions; generation and corruption                                ||



being to the earth like riuers to the ſea, in a reſtleſſe

current, and perpetuall progreſſe : doe wee ſee the

flouriſhing and falling, not only of Kings and Prin-

ces; but of Kingdomes and Commonwealths, Cit-

ties, Trophies, and whatſoeuer the vaine imagina-

tion of man hath contriued for the ouercomming

of time? and can we vpon ſome ſmall remnant of

Fortunes bounty, thinke to eſtabliſh a perpetuity of

mirth and pleaſure? No, no, he that takes not this

time to prouide for a world, and in the midſt of his

pleaſures doth not thinke how fraile and tranſitory

they are, will pay dearely for his iollity; when ſur-

priſed by death, or ſome diſaſter, they leaue him in

an inſtant, ſo much more miſerable then others; as

he hath depended vpon ſuch vncertainties : without

which, his life is moſt lothſome vnto him, and with

which, death moſt fearefull and abhorred.

     But to what end is all this tendred to the adorers

and louers of mirth? Their heads and hearts are

all ready filled with their own delights : which muſt

be conſumed by affliction,before the precious balm

of Sadneſſe can either enter or worke. Fabius ſaid,

he feared more Minutius victories thē ouerthrows:

which may be rightly applied to the generall diſpo-

ſition of man, his ſucceſſes infecting him with an

ignorant confidence, intoxicating his reaſon with

preſumption and oſtentation, which are ſuch dayly

effects of worldly proſperities, as they that thinke

themſelues Lords, are often the vnworthieſt ſort of

ſlaues: and their opinionatiue happineſſe, the moſt

wretched miſery: not vnlike the madde Athenian,

that imaagined himſelf poſſeſſed of al, whē indeed he

was true honor but of his own diſtemper & lunacy.                          ||



     To young men there belongs more pitty, aſwell

becauſe nature hath her hand in this their thirſt of

pleaſure : they beeing yet by the heate of bloud,

and the quickneſſe of their ſpirits, and the ſtrength

of their ſenſes, iolly and gameſome : as alſo that it

muſt be time, and the wounds and skars, gotten by

their wretched careleſneſſe, that muſt make them

capable of aduice: ſince(as Plutarch ſayth) their hea-

dy paſſions and pleaſures ſet ouer them, more cruell

and tyrannous Gouernours, then thoſe that had

the charge of their minorities: now who is it that lea-

deth this diſtracted dance, of youth, but mirth? for

whoſe ſake and pleaſures they are inſeparable com-

panions: what is irregular, indiſcreet, vnlawfull,

diſhoneſt; nay, what lawes, either of mans natures,

or Gods, are in theſe apprehenſions, ſtrong enough

to containe them within their bounds ? Galba in his

adoption of Piſo, amongſt his other prayſes ſayth;

you whoſe youth hath needed no excuſe: a commen-

dation ſo rare and glorious , as there needed no

more to illuſtrate his name and fame to all poſterity;

for who els, vnleſſe fettered and chained with nature

or fortune, but in their firſt wearing the freſh gar-

ment of youth, haue not ſoyled and ſpotted it; as

their whole life after (though painefully and indu-

ſtriouſly directed)hath not bin able to wipe out their

faults, and refreſh the gloſe of their reputation?

hence it is, that Delicta iuuentutis mea & ignorantias

meas ne memineris Domine, is taught by all, and vſed

by all; ſo ineuitable a diſeaſe is youth: of which we

need no witneſſe, ſince euery mans conſcience doth

iuſtifie it; the generality and antiquity, hauing made

it veniall: and by conſent, we bind none from theſe                          ||



ſlips and ſtumbles, but old men and women :

the reſt paſſe the muſters ſo farre from checking, as

they produce many of their follies as the markes of

ſpirit, and generoſity: and by their will would make

of an old vice, a young vertue : who can hope now

to deliuer this flouriſhing ſeaſon of youth, from theſe

Caterpillers? ſince mirth and pleaſure allures; opini-

on animates; and community hides them from the

ſight of themſelues and actions : this it is that

makes nothing more currannt, then to pay one ano-

ther with our faults, and no man truſts ſo much to

his owne vertue, as to his neighbours or Compani-

ons vices ; wee repoſe our ſelues in the defect of o-

thers, and no man ſtriues further, then to be compa-

ratiuely good: we aduance our ſelues vpon ruins, and

thinke our ſelues well, becauſe another is worſe : O

lame ſhift! O drunken remedie! I will then ſay but

this, to thoſe young men that will heare me, Since

you know not the way to true happineſſe and con-

tentment;ask not of them that are yet in the race;but

of them that haue paſſed it: propoſe vnto your ſelues

ſome patterne to imitate, (niſi ad regulam prauam[2] non

corrigas) and to ſtrengthen your iudgements, be-

hold thoſe that haue already acted their parts: take

one of theſe admirers of mirth and pleaſure ; and

an other that hath euer made his reaſon the taſter of

all his actions: and compare theſe together, and then

chuſe which of them you would be : there cannot

thus farre off bee ſo corrupted a iudgement, as not

to know the beſt; the difference is then a little time,

& hoc quod ſenectus vocatur, pauci ſunt circuitus amorū[3]:

Behold then the match , for a few yeeres to boote,

this vicious hatefull perſon is taken, that deuoured                            ||



his owne honour and reputation : and with his plea-

ſure ſwallowed euen his very ſoule, and that liues

now but in his infamy : rather then that well ordered

ſpirit , that hath left a true and perfect circle of a diſ-

creet gouern’d life and death, and left the world

heire of many rich and worthy examples : who in

this conſideration, but muſt crie out with the Pſal-

miſt, O what is man, that thou art ſo mindfull of him,

&c? or why hauing taken our iudgements thus hal-

ting, ſhould wee reply vpon in? carrying vs through

the world ; that in our entrance hath thus ſtumbled

and fallen : he hath then the firſt ſigne of recouerie,

that in this his beginning miſtruſts his owne wayes;

and dares offer his wounds to the Surgeon : it is an

incurable ignorance, that dares not put it ſelfe to

mending. Plato would haue offenders repaire to the

Iudge and Magiſtrate, as to the Phyſicions of the

ſoule, and ſubmit themſelues to puniſhment, as to

the medicine of recouery : but this was too high an

imagination for practiſe ; yet thus farre we may goe,

and vpon the ground ; and not in the ayre : hauing,

vpon a due examination, found it fit to miſtruſt our

ſelues, it followes euen in common reaſon , not to

throw our ſelues raſhly into any action : but to aſſiſt

our weakneſſe with gaining conſideration time : this

diſarms our paſſions of their violence, for their moti-

on being out of heat, and neuer going but running,

being once ſtayed, and ouertaken by reaſon, they af-

ter willingly ſubmit themſelues vnto her and are

eaſily managed: It is an axiome in Philoſophy, that

our firſt motions are not in our owne power: which

is true no longer then we liſt : for he that will not im-

barke himſelfe, without a pauſe and deliberation,                              ||



diſſolues the Acrimony of his affections; and makes

them of the cruelleſt Tyrants the moſt profitable ſer-

uants. It is true, our ignorance and ſloth make eue-

ry thing terrible vnto vs : and we wil not because we

dare not , and dare not becauſe we will not: this

makes vs ſubmit our ſelues to any thing that doth ei-

ther flatter or threaten vs:and like ſome ſottiſh weak-

lings, that giue the reines of their gouernment, into

the hands of their wiues or ſeruants ; thinking then

they buy their peace, when they ſell it : thus do they

grow vpon vs, and by compoſition, not force, be-

come maſters of the place; being iuſt ſo ſtrong as

we are weake. The ſcouts of Antigonus relating vn-

to him the multitude of his enemies, and aduiſing by

way of information the danger of a conflict, that

ſhould be vndertaken with ſo great an vnequality:he

replied, And at how many do you valew me? In this

ciuill wars of our ſelues the firſt diſorder and conſe-

quently our ouerthrow proceeds frō a falſe valuation

of our owne ſtrength: we are content to imbrace our

owne true naturall worth , ſo wee may haue leaue to

yeeld our ſelues to ſome furious paſſion or ſoothing

affection: but would we now take a true knowledge

of our owne valew , we might eaſily redeeme our

ſelues : God and nature haue not dealt ſo tyrannical-

ly with man, as to giue him charge of that he cannot

hold: if we loſe the game it muſt be by play : where-

fore ſince we are likely to bee beſieged by the world,

and her allurements ; leſt famine or treaſon ſur-

priſe , let vs turne out of the walls, all vnprofitable

pleaſures; and knowe betimes that mirth becom-

meth neither the fortune, nor condition of man:

ſo is hee enuironed with dangers, and ſo ſubiect                                ||



to intrappings, omnis vita ſupplicium eſt, there is no

day, houre, or moment, that brings a certaine ceſſa-

tion of armes : but to the contrary, our life is a conti-

nuall war-fare, repreſenting vnto vs inceſſant dan-

gers and perils: wherefore wee muſt alwayes ſtand

vpon our guard, and keep a ſtraigth watch vpon our

ſelues ; not only examining the humors that goe in

and out, their arrants, and pretences: but euen euery

motion and thought; for of ſo many different pieces

is the little world of man compounded:ſo ſtirring,ſo

infatigable, ſo full of changes and counter-changes,

ſo ſodainely eleuated , as ſoone defected : and in a

word,ſuch a compoſition of contrarieties; as he that

doth not continually obſerue himſelfe , and ſteddily

fixe his eyes vpon all his actions; shall ſodainely

grow a ſtranger to himſelfe, and be vtterly ignorant

of his owne proceedings : if this then be a time for

mirth, we may eaſily imagine; who doth not alone

call all the parts and faculties of man from their du-

ties and charge , to feaſt and glut themſelues with

ſenſualities; but returneth them ſo corrupt and de-

baunched , as like Hannibals army, after their winte-

ring in Campania, they cannot bee knowne for the

ſame men ; ſo haue they melted their courages with

delicacie, and with ryot made themſelues impatient,

and almoſt incapable of diſcipline. To conclude,

ſuch is the weakneſſe of man, and ſo ſtrong are his

bodily inclinations,as if he doth not diuert or breake

the force of his affections, reaſon alone is not able to

reſiſt them : wherefore as Plato allowed old men,

mirth and wine, to reuiue nature almoſt tyred in her

long iourney, and to refreſh their ſpirits benum-

med with the coldneſſe of their dwelling:by the ſame                        ||



reaſon, it is forbidden youth , whoſe bloud being

now at the hotteſt, by the leaſt addition, or increaſe,

falls into the diſeaſes of exceſſe, the moſt violent

and vnreſiſtable extremes : wee ſee then it is preſcri-

bed but for a medicine, and by the difference of the

conſtitutions of young men and old, then dangerous for the

other: howſoeuer ſince it is preſcribed medicinably,

the too frequent vſe, muſt either deſtroy the operati-

on, or leaue onely the malignant quality aliue and

vncorrected, vnto thoſe whom the out-ſide of For-

tune dazels and allures, there is nothing to be ſayd

by way of aduice ; being ſuch, as neither nature, nor

education hath fauored , but are left to act the

baſe and illiberal parts vpon this ſtage of the world:

this is the multitude, the vulgar, the people that are

bought and ſold, and reckoned by the hundred and

the thouſand, and beare no price ſingle and alone;

a madneſſe it were then, to thinke to moue and con-

uert them together, when our Sauior that fedde

5000. of them, and as many heard him , could nei-

ther with the admirableneſſe of his miracles, nor the

excellency of his doctrine preuaile with them all,

and returne them all beleeuers : this were ſufficient

to deterre mee euen from but touching vpon this

quick-ſand , were they not the harbour of opinion,

where ſhee is ſtill reſcued from the louers of truth:

neither is it impoſſible that ſome,yet of her and their

party,vpon a truer information may forſake and bee

aſhamed of their ſtation,or to be a piece of the body

of this great Beaſt.

     There is nothing can enter into conſideration

more ſtrange and improbable , then to ſee euen the                          ||



moſt actiue and vnderſtanding ſpirits, to refer them-

ſelues and their proceedings to the multitude , to

eſteeme themſelues at their price, exceeds their me-

mories and powers of ſatisfaction. The young man

that thought to eſcape the being ſeene in a Tauerne,

with retiring further into it , was iuſtly reprehended

for going further in : but ſuch is the nature of vice, it

hath an alluring looke,and a detayning tayle,our de-

ſires firſt allure vs to things vnlawfull, and when we

are there, our feare bars vs in ; but if euery man

knew how much more right he might haue from his

owne tribunall, if he will freely and ſincerely giue his

reaſon her owne power, and how iuſtly an vnabu-

ſed conſcience will proceed, and how ſweetly and

ſecurely he ſleeps, that hath receiued from them his

quictus eſt, he would for euer diſclaime the cenſure of

opinion; and with Phocion miſtruſt himſelfe, becauſe

the people prayſed him : erubuit quaſi peccaſſet quod

placuerit : and as the Prince of morality aduiſeth,

Non reſpuit quid homines turpe iudicent aut miſerum,

nor it, qua populus ; ſed vt ſcidera[4] contrarium mundo i-

ter intendunt, it a hic aduerſus opinionem omnium radit[5]:

but thus far had I gone out of the way,had I not pur-

ſued opinion.

     To come now neere our purpoſe, in examinati-

ons,circumſtances are not neglected,if they any way

conduce to the end of our inquiry : thus Iudges and

Magiſtrates make their vſes & aduantages of names,

and countenances, though it be impoſſible to make

either ſo much as acceſſary : firſt then we finde, that

Sadneſſe hath euer beene receiued as a witneſſe of

truth; as In Sadneβe amongſt honeſt men, is taken

for an infallible aſſeueration : whereas mirth hath ſo                        ||



little credit , as when raſhneſſe or falſenesse hath

made an eſcape, by the tongue,the refuge is to lay it

to mirths charge : who as a licenſed Buffone, hath

often leaue to paſſe the bounds of modeſty & truth:

againe, mirth is ſo like drunkenneſſe, that they are at

this day, but as two names of one thing, and mer-

ry, meanes drunke, and drunke merry : whereas ſo-

ber expreſſeth a discreet temper, to rayſe and deiect

themſelues at the pleaſure of their breathes , to take

warrant from their countenances : and in a word, to

liue and dye at their appointments : when ſingle,

they ſcorne and deſpiſe them, and thinke euen their

beſt thoughts ſcarce worthy of their foot-boy , yet

the patterne and piece differeth not; and any one

as farre as ſufficiency expreſſeth the whole, as Phyſi-

cions ſay of the diſeaſes of the body that are, and

the ſame may come from different cauſes : ſo this of

the mind, which proceedeth either from the laying

their ambitious hopes vpon popularity , or ſuch as

guilty of their owne intentions, dare not put them-

ſelues vp on the tryall of their conſciences.

     A third ſort there are , that feede, and cloath,

and talke, aud walke, and haue deliuered themſelues

and their behauiour to bee brought vp by Opinion;

theſe ſince they cannot be ſeparated from the multi-

tude, neither can be, nor are worth the ſingling : for

thoſe that Ambition hath perſwaded to this popular

folly, they are worthy to bee deceiued : and were it

not, that in all inordinate deſires reaſon is firſt van-

quiſhed, they could not but know; this beaſt is tame

but in fayre weather; they loue that part of you

which they vnderſtand, which is your fortune, loue

and friendſhippe begins in the ſoule,and ends in the                          ||



body : and theirs begin in the body and ends in the

fortune:the two lignaments that tie the men to a iuſt-

neſſe and decorum in all their actions , are wit and

honeſty;which they being defectiue in, can no more

loue truely; then hee can ſpeake that is borne dumbe.

Wherefore further then commiſeration, and the

common duties of humanity, it is a madneſſe to be

popular : for as they ſay , the chieſe ſtrength of the

Lyon lieth in his tayle , ſo theirs in their mouthes;

which as it deuoures all you giue, ſo they goe no fur-

ther to pay for all they take.It is true, Vbicunque homo

eſt,ibt beneficio locus ect:[6]this farre charity commands,

and further is ridiculous, or dangerous, or both : in

Princes vnto whom they belong as a charge , and

who hath power to make them feare, if they will not

loue,popularity is no vice, but part of vſe, and as

dangerous for them to neglect, as for a priuate man

and a ſubiect to follow and affect.

     We haue nothing more common and in practice

amongſt decayed beauties , banquerouted by time

or accidents, then to hide it from others eyes with

art, and from their owne with falſe glaſſes : no other-

wiſe is it with them, that from the reflection of opini-

on behold the ſtate and condition of their minds;

ſurely hee is afraid to heare truth, that dares not in-

quire of himſelfe : it is againſt our wils,if we tranſport

to forraine eyes,or eares,any wares that are not ſub-

ſtantiall, or at leaſt formall : they are in the darke,and

viſible but to our ſelues, that are fit for reformation :

and as we know beſt their begettings and births , ſo

are they the naturall ſubiects for our owne con-

ſciences to worke vpon : it is long ſince receiued, that

in one, and the ſelfe ſame man, there may be good                            ||



man, and an ill Citizen ; men and lawes take know-

ledge of vice , no farther then their owne intereſt :

diſeaſes that threaten but one, are oppoſed but by

one, they are contagious and infectious, that are re-

ſiſted by a generality. They then that goe to opinion,

to knowe the temper and diſpoſition of their

minds, go to the market, rather to ſell then to buy :

and loue better to paint the walles and outſides of

themſelues, then to rectifie and repaire their inward

errors and defects : but farre worſe it is with them

that dare not to come to tryall, where their facts and

actions are knowne, which is at home : is not this

like children, which ſhunning the reprehenſion and

chaſtiſements of one fault, multiply it to many ? Or

like the careleſſe debtor , that ſuffers the intereſt to

outgrow the principall? How truely doth this proue

the cowardiſe of vice, or rather the ſottiſhneſſe,ſince

he conſiders not, that as faſt as hee runs from feare,

the ſame haſte he makes to deſpensation, where they

ineuitably end , that neuer reckon with themſelues,

till the ſumme vnimpeached by drinke or any other


     For the continuance, what men carry more miſ-

truſt before them, then thoſe, that haue worne out

the ſobrietie of an honeſt looke, with a continuall

girning or laughing? a marke of natures, ſo ſeldome

failing,as it is in euery obſeruatiō held, for an irreco-

uerable defect either of wit or honeſtie:of ſuch ſtuffe

are commonly flatterers,time-pleaſers, & faunguiſts

made : people ſo obnoxious to vertue and worth, as

were it not that they breed & liue only vpon the luſt

of Fortune, it were impoſſible to keepe them from a

generall extirpation. For it is they that haue berea-                            ||



ued greatneſſe and riches of innocency, and made

it of a dead and indifferent inſtrument in the power

of the diſpoſer, to haue hatched more monſters then

all the broode of vices beſides : and in a word haue

been the viſableſt and chiefeſt procurers of the hea-

uy ſentence of our Sauiour againſt rich men ; that

it is eaſier for a Camell to paſſe throught a needles

eye, then for a rich man to enter into the kingdome

of heauen.

     In the contemplating Sadneſſe, and mirth, mee

thinks, I ſee the true formes of the two Ladies that

offered themſelues to Hercules, at his entrance into

the way of the world, Vertue, and Pleaſure, the firſt

with a ſettled compoſed countenance (not vnlike the

South ſea) full of peace, certainty, and truth : no o-

uerruling paſſion diſordering or raiſing the leaſt bil-

low,or moouing the ſmalleſt breath of perturbation:

the other like a ſhop that ſets out the beſt wares to

the view, and offers many pleaſing morſels to the

ſenſes, and at the firſt ſeemes to reſemble bounty it

ſelfe in freeneſſe and ſweetneſſe ; but, alas, ſhe is too

ſoone wonne to be conſtant, ſhee brings not in your

reckoning,til you haue conſumed what ſhe ſet before

you,and then you ſhal know they are too deare,when

it is too late to refuſe them : her ſmiles and allure-

ments, are like the ſun-ſhine daies of winter, ſtorm-

breeders : her cleereneſſe, warmth, and calmeneſſe,

produce euer cloudes and tempeſts ; repentance ,

griefes and anxieties of the ſoule; and as Phiſicians

hold, a continuall requiring ſtomake an infallible

Symptomie of a corrupt and diſeaſed body:ſo may be

ſaid of the louers of Mirth, that paſſe from one plea-

ſure to another, and dare not let their braines ſettle,                          ||



leſt they ſhould ſee their owne deformities , their

corrupted manners and the leproſie of their minds.

     Hitherto Sadneſſe hath gotten but a preemi-

nence, and hath but prooued her ſelfe better then a

worſe; not approoued her owne goodneſſe : it is

now time, to diſplay her in her owne excellency, not

ſuch a one as reuerts all things vpon it ſelfe, and re-

gards no quality that returnes not laden with profit ;

but ſuch a communatiue goodneſſe, as growes not

poore by imparting; but redoubles it owne ſtrenght,

riches, and ſplendor, with lending, aſſiſting and diui-

ding it influence on others : but before I offer her,

and her qualities to the view, it is neceſſary I deci-

pher her : Philopamen,[7] for want of an interpretor,

was ſet to cleaue wood by his hoſteſſe, for his owne

entertainment: the eye is a nice,buſie & vndertaking

ſence, if reaſon or iudgement prepare not her way.

     I meane not then, vnder the name of Sadneſſe, to

defend effeminate bewailings and lamentations; let

them a gods-name , that ſubiect to the Lycian law;

that bound theſe kind of lamentors to be arraied like

women; nor am I an approuer, of a ridgid, ſowre,

moroſe auſterity,ſince it is ſeldom other then the vi-

ſard of enuy,or vain-glory:ſuch were Nero his Philo-

ſophers, nec deerant qui voce vultug triſti inter ob-

lectamenta Regia ſpectari cuperent : neyther is it a

ſmall motiue to their condemnation , that the no-

uice and inquirer after vertue is deterred , to ſee her

diſciples ſo ouer-clowded and drowned in heauines:

rather like the followers of a Funerall, then her mi-

nions and beloued, whoſe power and bounty doth

not alone extend it ſelfe vnto all deſeruers, but                                  ||



makes all liues , fortunes , and accidents, not alone

tolerable and to bee indured;but ſweet , wholſome,

eaſie and oft times glorious, and exemplare : neither

will I prayſe a ſorrow, that as Pythagoras ſayth, eates

his owne heart; that abandons the rudder in a ſtorm,

and dares not liue for feare of dying.

     Wiſe men know, it is the condition of humanity

to be toſſed with contrary winds, and thoſe are the

ſeaſons of diſtinction between wiſe men and fooles:

euery man lookes gayly in a holiday fortune, but to

be baſely ſet by, and to ſhine through an obſcure for-

tune , illuſtrates the riches and pretiouſneſſe of the

mind: man hath not the throwing of the dice, but

the playing of the caſt : he is Lord ouer his intenti-

ons, the other part reacheth vp to heauen : where

ſucceſſes and effects are deliuered backe, not accor-

ding to the appetite of man, but the inſcrutable wiſ-

dome of God , and vpon that wee ought to reſt our

ſelues, not onely with patience, but with comfort;

that the onely fountaine of knowledge hath taken it

into his owne hands, of whoſe better diſpoſing, it

were the greateſt impiety and infidelity to make the

leaſt doubt or queſtion : but it is ſadneſſe that pre-

pares vs for the actiong of this and the reſt of our life

truely ; and as we ought : who muſt not be vnder-

ſtood to be of the diſcent of Niobe , ſtill labouring

in teares and exclamations : not a vaine-glorious or

enuious Philoſopher, that bigge with his owne pro-

feſſiion,[8] labours to proclaime it in his lookes : nor a

ſilent fretting ſorrow, that will needs marry his affli-

ctions : but Sadneſſe whoſe portracture I would pre-

ſent from the generall ſtate and nature of man , hath

drawne her ſelfe into an habite or poſture ; in ſome                          ||



places fit to reſiſt the incurſions of her enemies : in

others to diuert them, and ſometimes like a wiſe

Conquerour ; making of the cruelleſt foes; aſ-

ſured friends or louing ſubiects : her outſide is ſober,

calme, conſtant, modeſt,and for the moſt part ſilent;

her inſide full of peace, induſtry and reſolution.

     To reduce theſe into a ſhorter and ſounder way,

what knowledge, art, or ſcience is there, more neceſ-

ſary and important, then that which is wholly deuo-

ted to the ordering of our life? this doth Sadneſſe

moſt aptly and effectually : firſt inſtructing, then ad-

orning, and laſtly, gouerning the life of man, with

ſo much tranquillity, certaintly, and happineſſe, as if

we will truſt either reaſon or example , we ſhall find

no liues to carry ſo continual a contentment as theſe:

nor none ſo often, and ſo continually miſcarry as the


     Since then in theſe are comprehended the whole

courſe of mans life, we will draw the picture of Sad-

neſſe within this compaſſe : ſo ſhall I not prayſe her

more then profit my Reader : or if I faile, an vnskil-

full Painter may ſpoyle a picture , but nor a face ;

which a worthier vndertaking , may purchaſe glory,

by the ſpoyles of my imperfections: ſince it is not

then with man, as with other creatures,that are in-

dowed with the greateſt part of their vnderſtanding,

at the very entrance into the World, which being

bounded and limired within a ſelfe preſeruation, ex-

tends no further then to a preſent conſideration of

them and theirs : as it is a naturall propertie infuſed

rather into their being , then into them ; & rather to

the profit of nature , and her conſeruation, then for

their particular benefit: as at the firſt it is ſtraight,and                        ||



narrow, ſo time ripens it not, nor dilates it: farre o-

therwiſe it is with man , whoſe reaſon growes with

him, and whoſe iudgement(as not compatible with

his youth ) is deliuered vnto him when he comes to

age : at leaſt his minority is but the ſeed-time : in his

Autumne comes his harueſt, that is the time of his

inſtruction ; this of vſe.

     Now, whether it be from the pride of man, that

loues not to looke ſo low as his infancy , or the con-

tempt he hath no impart his time to a poore lumpe

of fleſh, or that ſince Nature hath forced him vpon

women, he thinks to turne the imperfections of time

vpon the imperfections of Nature, and that they are

fitteſt to breed & hatch their puling wayward weak-

neſſes:whether from one, or from all,or from ſome

more hidden cauſe : certaine it is, that to the moſt

men in particular,& to the common-wealth in gene-

rall,there ariſeth great loſſe, by ſacrificing theſe their

firſt yeeres,vnto their tuitions: from hence it comes,

that when Poets would ſet vp a marke for imitation,

they durſt neuer truſt a woman, ſo much as with their

nurſing;but borrowed of their imagination , either a

Goddeſſe or a Nymph,or rather then faile,a meaner

creature. Some Philoſophers would allow them, no

more intereſt in our conception,then to receiue che-

riſh, foſter, and re-deliuer vs : but alas,the large por-

tion of the imperfections that we inherit from them,

aſſures vs the contrary : but ſince it is ſo much ; as

time, reaſon, inſtruction, and whatſoeuer the wit of

man can apply, can neuer vtterly expell; hardly cor-

rect, or temper : what a ſtupid careleſneſſe , raignes

ouer the world, to increaſe our defects, by inlarging

their time of gouernment.                                                                  ||



     But neither to offend them , nor ſtay further from

my ſubiect ; their diſpoſitios will not take the rich

colour of Sadneβe, which euer yeeldes that tranquil-

lity & ſettledneſſe of mind,that can propoſe the end,

and proſecute the way , without diuerſion, or error :

at leaſt , without thoſe that diſioyne our intentions;

and ouerthrow our purpoſes:whereas(the very ſprings

of paſſionſs & affections) take & change their forms,

at the pleaſure of euery repreſentation , not vpon a

deliberated iudgement; but according to the con-

ſultation and concluſions of their ſences.

     Thus when we may ſee the power of Sadneβe, for

inſtruction ; ſince they that want it, are not to be tru-

ſted with education,yet not to leaue enemies behind

vs,though I wiſh we might obſerue their order, that

ſet wild birds egges, vnder thoſe that are domeſticke

and tame , to alter their wild condition into their fo-

ſter-mothers more milde and familiar : and ſo could

wiſh our dry nurſes were men, & ſuch as could teach

them words made of reaſon, as well as winde ; and

though there be many ſeuere, (if not malicious) cen-

ſures giuen vs,by our forefathers, againſt them in all

ages , and by all countries , and by all profeſſions; of

which infinit cōcurrence of cenſures , I will giue but

one inſtance , nelle coſe di conſiglio in vna donna, e ca-

pace di poterlo dare ne meno di pigliarlo per ſe e tanto

peggio da tenerlo ſecreto mai; yet doub I not, but they

are owners of ſuch perfections,as bounded,and kept

in their owne circumference , are of much vſe and

pleaſure : and they are to be honoured by vs, no leſſe

then our mother earth, from whom wee no ſooner

come , but wee ſtriue to returne againe : to con-

clude , ſince we cannot be without them , it is great                          ||



reaſon,they ſhould be entertained with a due reſpect:

which is rather ſweetly,then ſeriouſly : let them haue

their owne intereſt religiouſly anſwered ; and for

more, ſince it but corrupts them , and ſhackles vs;

whatſoeuer old men for their ſakes , will attend their

charge, with more circumſpection.

     If then we deſire to frame a man that ſhall deſerue

his being, and to be maſter of himſelfe and time:

let vs begin betimes , to ſet ſuch Gouernours ouer

him, as may both by their examples, and inſtructi-

ons, dayly reflect vpon him, and infuſe into him the

grace, and moſt inſtructiue influence of Sadneſſe, for

by this meanes hee liues fortified againſt the grand

corrupter of youth Pleaſure: and the violent enemy

of Age, Griefe. Surely the beame that keeps the co-

gitatiōs of man euen,is none other then Sadneſſe:for

hee that thinkes to buy his peace with accumulating

riches, or to be too ſtrong for fortune, with making

himſelfe powerfull , doth but apply an outward me-

dicine for an inward diſeaſe : which thought it may

ſometimes eaſe , ſeldome cures : but Sadneſſe, that

keepes vs at home , daily ſhewes vs the brittle frail-

ty of all exterior things (which makes vs like an Ar-

my peſtered with too much carriage ,neither fit to fly

nor fight) vnites our inward powers, defends our

reaſon,from the vapours and miſts of our affections;

and ſtanding betweene the extremes of mirth and

ſorrow , is the onely perfit moderator of our hu-

mane actions. Cato, though he had many learned

ſlaues, would not commit the education of his ſon

to them, but himſelfe became his inſtructor: which

I attribute to no other conſideration,then that he ra-                          ||



ther choſe,to frame him to a wel compoſed Sadneβe,

then to be excellent in any Art or Profeſſion : vt

modeſtior, non vt lepidior fiat, a perfection fitter for

a mechanicke earner, then a true owner of himſelfe:

ſince it is the forming of the minde, not the tongue

or hand, that can preferre vs to true felicity.

     Now that we may touch as it were with our finger

how much Sadneſſe conferres, towards a perfit in-

ſtruction; what is more proper and peculiar to the

forming and framing of the mind to wiſedome and

goodneſſe, then firſt to keepe out vice , and then ſo

to worke, prepare, and temper the mind, as it ſhall

be alwaies fit to receiue & containe the wholeſome

documents of vertue and honeſtie ? Which doth

Sadneβe , ſo naturally and effectually, as all other

things, that offer themſelues for this vſe, are in com-

partiſon, left-handed , and ſtepmothers to educati-


     Firſt then, as one ſayth pretily in his imagined

wife, that he would haue her, of a denying behaui-

our ; as if a fort acceſſiuely ſcituated, could not bee

impregnable, ſince aſſaultable : and as he ſaith there-

fore, he comes too neere, that comes to bee denyed,

and as Ouid, that great trader into thoſe parts, could

neuer find armor of proofe for Chaſtity, but not to

be prooued, caſta eſt quam nemo rogauit, ſhe’s chaſte,

whom no tongue yet did taſte: ſo doubtleſſe, he ſhall

paſſe the narrow way of Vertue, with fewer impedi-

ments, that his owner of this ſober preuentiue beha-

uiour, then thoſe alluring countenances, which keep

open houſe for all commers : one Phyloſopher

would haue bolſters made,to ſtop the eares of yong

men, from contagious noyſome ſounds ; but he that                        ||



hath made Sadneſſ his Porter, ſhall not need them,

ſince his very preſence deters and checks their looſe

imaginations, and they dare not confeſſe themſelues

to him, that hath their condemnation written in his

face : hoc ſecum certe tuliβet, neminem coram Catonem

peccare. Pedlers open their wares willingeſt to wo-

men and children :in a word, as they ſay the Amatiſt

preuents drunkenneſſe , ſo is Sadneſſe the preſerua-

tiue againſt the entrance of a number of vices.

     Will wee then frame a man fit to command and

obey ? to gouerne others and direct himſelfe ? a

man ſo ſquared by the vnfaileable rules of wiſedome

and iudgement, as to know how to become all pla­-

ces, and to vſe all fortunes? Bind his tender youth

to a diſpoſition tempered with Sadneſſe : for this man

can neither ſeduce his minority with ill examples,

nor marre his waxen age,with a falſe impreſſion,too

common a condition of theſe diſſolute times: where

our children with their milke, and their very firſt

words, ſuckc in obſcene ſpeeches, and diſſolute be-

hauiour : and imitation, and cuſtome, hath giuen

them the very habite of vice, before they haue ei­-

ther loued, or choſen them.

       But this falls not out to the pupils that are gouer-

ned by men of this carriage: for ſince it is reſolued,

that this Sadneſſe is not an accident of their com-

­plexions,but a gard hammered out of their diſcourſe

and the iſſue of a happie matched diſcretion and ex­-

perience : they doe already ſo well know, that all the

allurements of vice offer themſelues, but like play-

­ers and iugglers, to ſhew you ſport, and to gaine by

you: and this word recreation, is but the outſide of

times waſtfull and wilfull conſumption :and that not                        ||



onely the houres ſo ſpent, are vtterly loſt; but which

is ſarre worſe, this continuall excitation of the beſti-

all part of man, prouokes his luſtes and ſenſualities

vnto an vnquenchable dropſie.

       Doubtleſſe, as complexions are apter to the in-

fection of bodily diſeaſes, one then the other; ſo

behauiours to the contagion of the mind : mirth is

made of pleaſure, and with pleaſure all vices are bai-

­ted ; whereas this Sadneſſe is the complexion of a

mind that knoweth this, and therefore hates and diſ-

daines Mirth: I know experience is the chiefeſt eui-

­dence, that age can produce to proue their right to

wiſedome; but that which makes their iudgements

ſtrong inough,to make their experience of more vſe,

then a bare tale, is a decay of their ſenſes, growne

too weake to trade for themſelues, and the fitter to

be ſet to our reaſon to make vp a true harmony of all

the parts,to the good and preſeruation of the whole:

the ſame effect hath Sadneſſe with young men, that

this decay of nature hath with old;for when the con-

­ſenting part,or will of man, is ſo rectified with a ſad

conſideration of the true valew of all that the ſenſes

preſent vnto her; well may they long to pleaſe them-

ſelues, with their ſeuerall obiects : but when that de-

ſire hath no other aduocate but it ſelfe; it ſoone lan-

guiſheth and forſaketh it ſuite: Eſchines aduice to an

inquirer after the beſt courſe of life, was, to goe to

the Church willingly, to the Warres vpon neceſſity,

but to Feaſts vpon no tearmes: what was this, but to

praiſe the conſeruation of Sadneſſe, which in theſe

aſſemblies, is for the moſt part betraied :and in the

heat of Wine, meat,and company, melted,into the

cuſtomes of diſſolute mirth ? which made the wiſe                            ||



Romane complaine, that hee neuer came amongſt

men, but returned leſſe man, then when hee went


     This made the Phyloſopher that fell a ſleepe at a

feaſt, hold his tongue with one hand, and with the

other, the part that they ſay women loue beſt, but not

to ſpeake of : as the two taps, at which Mirth and

Pleaſure are drawne out.

     But may I not ſeeme to go too much of one hand,

when propoſing inſtructions, I incline rather to pre-

­uentions then additions : ſurely if the nature of man

were ſo pure & ſimple,as it had no participation nor

cōmixture with contrarieties & repugnances, there

were no way but one; and that one direct : but as

he is firſt in his maſſe,or corporial ſubſtance,the iſſue

or production of the 4 grand Heterogimical bodies,

and after by the ſeuerall and moſt differing powers

of his reaſon and will, as vnlikc in their likeneſſe and

natures, as light and darkeneſſe: there being as much

to ſhun, as to follow : I hope I ſhall not erre in my

way, if the ſcituation of the end propoſed, drawes

me ſometimes about, ſince I vndertake to conduct,

not the eye, but the vnderſtanding.

     Neither will my Reader(I hope) hold himſelfe de-

ceiued,if Sadneſſe alone,and by it ſelfe, onely brings

not in all the materialls neceſſary to the compoſing

of a perfit man, and the framing a happineſſe to the

full extent of our earthly condition : for ſuch an ex-

tract is not to be drawne, from a knowledge ſo ouer-

clowded as mine, let it ſuffice then and it will : (my

indifferent Iudge ) that it is of ſo much vſe and im-

portance, as though with it onely you cannot make

this purchaſe, yet without it, if it be not impoſſible,                          ||



yet at leaſt moſt difficult,and withall, that though the

ſoule in her reuoluings and trauels, may meet thoſe

ſolid conſiderations, that are moſt like her ſelfe,

wherein as in a glaſſe ſhe beholds her own beauties:

yet are they tranſitory, and but the flaſhes of her a-

gitation: the habituall poſſeſſion of the graces of the

mind, being to be fixed vpon no body, that Sadneſſe

hath not firſt prepared. This made ſo many of the

Ancients, and of thoſe moſt memorable, for the ex-

­cellencies of the minde: ſome to throw away their

wealth, others to refuſe riches,the graces of Princes,

and the fauour of the people : others pull out their

owne eyes,and ſome to abandon the ſociety of man;

and euen he that might trulieſt be intituled, Deliciae

humani generis, he that had the fetch ver-

tue from Heauen,and to place her in Cities; to bring

her from the paradiſe of the gods, and tranſplant

her in the breſts of men : no doubt embraced a wil-

full pouerty; nay euen life it ſelfe, which he was of-

fered at the eaſieſt rate, he would not yet accept of,

as too delicate and nice a thing,for a worthy and he-

roicke ſpirit, to make account of. Ifnow wee enter

into the conſideration of the motiue that made

theſe men ſhun what all the world ſo earneſtly pur-

ſue: what could it be but to keepe theſe wants afoot,

continually to admoniſh them, of their condition,

and to cut off all wayes, by which mirth or pleaſure

might make their approches or come to the aſſault.

     Alexander in the exceſſe of abundance, killed Cly-

tus, Fabritius in his pouerty, refuſed the golden

bribes of the Samnites; vpon abundance waits mirth

and pleaſure, and vpon them all , the leproſies and

deformities of our minds.                                                                     ||



     There is not ſo incorrigible a creature as man in

proſperity, nor ſo modeſt and reformed as they that

Fortune hath not rockt but wak’t, the conſequence

of which being Mirth and Sadneβe : behold them

in their operations , and wee muſt reiect the one,as

a moſt dangerous poyſon , and imbrace the other ,

for the moſt precious preſeruatiue.

     If yet I haue not proued Sadneſſe , inſtruction it

ſelfe: yet I hope ſhe doth not look with ſo diſfigured

a countenance , as when Opinion paints her: and

though I cannot ſay,ſhe is the end of knowledge, yet

I may well maintaine her the beginning: ſince it is

Sadneſſe onely that prepares the vnderſtanding, and

makes euery man , Idoneus auditor , fit to philoſo-

phize,and to be diſciples in the ſchoole of Vertue.

     If now it be determined and truely, that the gra-

ces and beauties of the ſoule,ought to haue the place

and honour,aboue thoſe of the body: and the ſweet-

nes, beauty and louely proportion of the body, to be

preferred before the effeminate deckings, that the

body doth rather carry then enioy: ſince it often hap-

­pens, that a foule and deformed carkaſe hath a faire

and rich wardrop : and if all theſe in their originall

eſtimations, were firſt valued , not for their owne

ſakes, but as the Ambaſſadours of thoſe inward qua­-

lities and excellencies , that ſuch complections,

ſhapes, and proportions, inſeparably fore-ſhew:

Sadneβe, I doubt not , both for her outward loueli-

neſſe, and inward vertue and vſe , will be allowed for

an adornement, that doth not alone pleaſe the eye,

but the more iudiciall and intellectuall parts.

     Firſt then, though I am not ignorant , theſe mer-

ry companions are the moſt acceptable to the moſt:                           ||



yet not alwayes to the beſt, and if they be at times

welcome to the vnderſtanding ſort,they are receiued

to their tables, not counſells : and vſed rather for

ſauce for their meate , then ſeaſoning for their

iudgements : and are, as was ſayd of Athens, pla-

­ces that though many deſired to bee entertayned in,

yet few to inhabite : from whence commeth this,

but that as they are adorers of mirth , they are ha-

­ters of all ſadde and ſerious conſiderations x to

keepe life in laughter, the whole ſtream xxx their

wits is ſpent, vpon the motion of their toxgues : In

a word , they ſacrifice their earneſt to xeſt,[9] their

friends to their humour, and to preſent ſatisfacti-

ons, all the duties of humanity, honeſty, and diſ-

cretion : and if ſo; where ſhall we lay hold of them,

or to what vſe would they ſerue, but to ſuch a one,

as all honeſt natures cannot but ſcorne and diſdaine?

vvhereas the ſadde and ſober behauiour makes it

one way to allowances, and if it gets not acquain­-

tances ſo faſt, it winnes friends faſter ; and though

perhaps it bee not alwayes ſo readily entertained,

yet it is euer more reſpected : and reaſon, ſince the

one with his inceſſant motion weares out it ſelfe,

loades the eare, and loathes the eye ; whereas the

other,in his reſeruedneſſe, maintaines his vnderſtan-

­ding , in his vnited vigor : and not troubling his

braine with his tongue, falls not into the diſaduan-

tages of many words : but ſtill holding more in his

breſt then vpon his ſhoulders, is ſtrong enough for

any aſſault,and prepared to make the beſt vſe of com­-

pany and conference. Surely,if behauiour be of ſuch

eſtimation, as beauty without it is deformed; and

deformity with it is louely, and agreeable to al eyes:                         ||



if behauiour be the ſoule of the forme,Sadneſſe is the

ſoule of the ſoule : for ſuch a compoſed ſettled

ſmoothneſſe , as diſtaſtes not to day ; pleaſeth to

morrow,and gets by continuance : no faſhion wins

ſo vniuerſally and continually, as that which hath re-

­ceiued the true tincture of Sadneſſe , for it ſuppreſſeth

the inconſtancy, and buſie turbulency of the paſſi-

ons and affections : it receiues nothing vpon truſt,or

at the firſt ſight; and therefore is alwaies one: neither

being troubled with the flouds and ebbes of for­-

tune : the vanity of the world, the ill imployed pow-

­er of greatneſſe , nor the fluctuary motions of the

humerous multitude; or at leaſt, if he be ſenſible of

their irregularities and confuſions, yet his thoughts

are not written in his face : his countenance is not

ſignificant:whereas the face and diſpoſition of mirth

euer reſembles his laſt thoughts; and vpon euery

touch, or taſte of that which is diſpleaſant, and fol-

lowes not the ſtreame of his appetite, it deformes it

ſelfe, and like the Moone, is in as many changes, as

his fortune : now if the wrangling of children bee

troubleſome, the waywardneſſe of men muſt, to a

ſtrangcr,be ridiculous; and to the acquaintance odi-

­ous : and conſequently Sadneβe a goodly ornament,

that neither diſpleaſeth others, deformes it ſelfe, nor

at any time paſſeth the bounds of iudgement and diſ-

cretion; and though he muſt, as he is man, haue

many thoughts to repent, yet few actions. Primum

argumentum compoſitae mentis existimo, poſſe conſiſtere

& ſecum morari, as it is commonly taken for a ſigne

of a ſtrong eſtate, and a ſettled diſpoſition, to keepe

a certaine houſe, and to loue home : and that ſuch

men are the beſt , both comforters and counſellers,                           ||



of their meane and needy neighbours : ſo is it, with

thoſe minds that retire into their owne meditations,

and ſcatter not themſelues vpon the irreſolute and

inconſtant inuitations of opinion ; being moſt profi-

­table in their examples ; and moſt ſound, in their

counſels ; outwardly goodly markes of direction,

for them that are ignorant in their courſe: and with­-

in , moſt happy and ſafe harbours and hauens for

them, that either by weather, or weakneſſe, or any

other,either ſuſpicion or knowledge of impediment,

dare not put out into the vaſte and profound muta-

­bilities and dangers of this Ocean of the World: if

now a mole on the cheek be an ornament to beauty;

Sadneſſe is the ſame to wit; and if wit,like quickſiluer,

bee too nimble for it owne conſeruation , Sadneβe

doth more then containe it : for it refines, and fixes

it: Iewels and rich apparell adorne the Poſſeſſor,and

exact from ſtrange eyes a reuerence and reſpect:

Sadneſſe, the graue and euer becomming robe of

iudgement, repreſents to all vnderſtandings the ve-

­nerable account of all ſo adorned : if the all con-

­cealing apparell of women, that meaſured by their

modeſty, leaues nothing for the incurſions, of gree-

­dy wanton eyes to make ſpoyle of, and doth not on-

­ly proclaime their ſoules fairer then their bodies, but

their bodies fairer then they are: with leauing the

face, eye and hand, as a broken ſentence to be per­-

fected by imagination : Sadneβe doth the ſame ; for

the interiour parts doubling and redoubling the per-

­fections of the mind, in ſuch ſort, that euen fooles

that Nature hath euen hidden vnder this behauiour,

haue often eſcaped cenſure; and vnder title of a hid-

­den fellow hath hidden a moſt empty and ſenſeleſſe:                          ||



for who can tell the contents of a claſped booke, or

inuentory,or a lockt Wardrop? Now as it conceales

the foole,it illuſtrates the wiſe man. For as the Sun

breaking through a cloude , lets fall the golden

treſſes of his beames vpon the gloomy ayery mor-

­ning, after his abſence , with a much more reſplen-

dent maieſtie, then when continually vnmasked, he

proſtitutes his beauties vnto euery eye, and makes

not onely the Shepheard, but his flocke weary of his

company, and ſeeke ſhade and ſhelter to hide them-

ſelues from his too faſt fixed ſight: euen ſo the well

wayed motions of the ſad behauiour commands at-

­tention , and the ſtayednes of his carriage prepares

a conſent before hearing, as due to him that lets no-

­thing paſſe without due conſideration.

     To conclude,if one of the greateſt Philoſophers

determined ſilence, a more excellent quality then e-

loquence : I haue the ayd of his authority, ſince

Sadneβe is the ſeate of ſilence, where ſhee onely re-

ſides in ſafety , and where without all noyſe, trouble

or tumult, ſhe enioyes the intelligence and contem-

­plations of the ſoule : which the children of mirth

cannot heare; for their owne noyſe : nor taſte, their

mouthes are ſo furd with bodily pleaſures.

     And now I will appeale to the eye, if theſe lignia-

ments and features of Sadneβe be not more goodly

and becomming then thoſe of mirth: ſurely if they

be not more delightfull,they are more contenting:

the difference of which, I refer to the Iudiciall,and

to thoſe that valew things by their neereneſſe , and

reſemblance of thoſe of Heauen.

     Laſtly,for gouernment, though the world be not

made of Attomes, yet the body of mans reputation,                         ||



is the concurrence of his ſpeeches, actions and paſ-

ſions : which ought to aduiſe all men,not to neglect

the leaſt motion, either of mind or body : leſt it fa­-

ſtens a deformity vpon all : ſhall we expect this from

mirth ? it were in vaine,and to preſcribe it, were loſt

labour; it is compoſed wholly of contrarieties: for

take a quantity of idle breath , ſublimated into a ieſt,

a proportion of laughter , ſome mimicke trickes, ei-

­ther of the face or the body, and boyle them ſo tho-

rowly in wine, that you cannot know one from ano-

­ther,and you haue the moſt receiued receit of mirth:

but who will vndertake to giue aſſurance,that this in-

ſpired crue, ſhall not violate the dignity of men: and

ſo gouerne themſelues,that ſhame and deriſion ſhall

not haue more right to them , then they to them-

ſelues ?

     Vliβes dranke of Circes cuppe, and was not tranſ-

formed : the morall is , a wiſe man may waſh his

mouth, but not quench his thirſt, with pleaſure : for,

he that aymes onely at mirth and pleaſure , hits ſor-

row and repentance; as well becauſe it makes him

raſh and inconſiderate in his courſes, when to buy

mirth, he ſells all the reſpects and duties that hee

owes to ineſtimable vertue , and his owne preſerua-

tion : as that it being to the mind, as a ſtoaue to the

body, that ſo opens the pores, as the leaſt ayre giues

a blow to the health, ſo the leaſt aduerſity or frowne

of fortune,deiects their minds,and layes them open,

either to a rauening fury, or a baſe bewayling: wher-

fore he that will not ſeale the worſt of ſorrow, let him

beware of deuoting himſelfe to mirth, for they only

feele the water intolerable cold , that goe into it ex-

­traordinary hot. The Philoſophers that impoſed ſi-                             ||



lence vpon their Schollers for their firſt inſtruction,

could intend nothing elſe, but the ſettling and com-

poſing the mind : from whence ariſeth that habite of

Sadneſſe , that gaue them power of themſelues; and

withall of all things that came within the bounds of

their knowledge : if not to gaine by, yet not to loſe.

     To what end ſhould I produce the witneſſe of ma­-

ny famous ancients,from whome ſcarce a ſmile was

euer drawne, and yet were ſuch, as neuer loſt oppur-

tunity ; that preſented it ſelfe,to do others good, or

themſelues right : nor euer loſt that power , force,

and tranquillity of their owne minds, in any of For-

­tunes tranſmutations, that is wont ſo to ouercome

the reaſon of men,as like tranſformed creatures,there

can bee nothing more different then them to them-

ſelues ? Neither will I authorize my opinion,by the

example of our bleſſed Sauiour, who was neuer ſeene

to laugh : nor Salomons ſacred counſell, that it was

better to go to the houſe of mourning, then mirth,

leſt the worldly man, that makes prouiſion only for

the building of his Babel, caſt me off as an vnſea-

ſonable and impertinent counſellor : though it ſhal

then ( gentle Reader) inſenſibly, and without thy

trouble prepare thee for the beſt worke of thy life,

which is the life eternall : yet whileſt thou wilt be at-

tentiue to thy temporall imployments, it is alſo of

moſt effectuall importance.

     Deſireſt thou to be reputed wiſe ? It is her viſibleſt

forme; not to bee importuned with vaine and idle

cōpany? they feare Sadnes too much to follow thee.

     To bee the ſafe Cabinet of thy owne and thy

friends ſecrets ? Sadneſſe is the parent of ſilence, ſi-

lence of ſecrecy.                                                                                   ||



     To be temperate? where Sadneβe is Porter , few

vaine deſires are admitted.

     Not to bee precipitate in thy actions ? Where

Sadneſſe keepes the liſts of conſideration , alwaies

cleere and free , from the intruſions of paſſion, the

ſoule cannot but gouerne all things by the regular

and iudiciall power of reaſon , as ſhee that knowes

time call to conſultations, ſhuts out repentance.

     In a word, if there be any way to be troad in by

our feete of clay, we are out of the reach of Fortune,

out of the power of our paſſions, and in the full poſ-

ſeſſion of our ſelues, wee may liue in a continuall

calme:where from the height of a cleere & impreg­-

nable iudgement, wee may ſafely and inſenſibly be-

­hold the world, by this time ſo farre vnder vs , as all

ſuch vaine deſires, as had wont to make vs ſuiters

and followers to her, haue loſt ſight of their inamo-

red obiects, it is by the way of Sadneſſe : who doth

not alone inrich vs by that it brings, but preſerues

vs ſo by keeping out all inordinate appetites, diſtem-

pered affections, and thoſe humors of bloud and o-

pinion,who where they are fauoured,do vſually de-

ſtroy and expell, not onely all honeſt and vertuous

actions , but euen the very thoughts that doe but

ſeeme to be well affected.

     Thus haue I (good Reader) preſented to thy ac­-

quaintance the ſweeteſt, and beſt conditioned com­-

panion of the life of man, which if you will but be-

leeue vpon tryall, I deſire no more : be not ſeduced

by opinion, and thou maiſt bee as happie as this                           

world can make thee : for though the outward pow­-

er makes men great, yet is the inward, that makes

men vertuous, and vertue onely that produceth a                               ||



happineſſe , that can indure the teſt of all times and


     Neither muſt I omit to anſwere them that would

hide their baſe choice in the confuſion of words,and

ſo will haue their mirth to be ioy ; but he is worſe

then blind that knowes them not a ſunder, mirth be-

­ing rather an apiſh vnquietneſſe , then a ſolide con-

­tentment: beſides, it liues not of it ſelfe, it depends

vpon fortune,vpon time, health, and many outward

accidents; and liues but vpon borrowing , whereas

ioy being as the ſhadow of vertue, or the effect of

the inward and inſeparable cauſe of a good life,is ne­-

uer from home, neuer in a cloude , neuer ſubiect to

alteration, alwayes one , and therefore not only al-

waies happie , but therefore happineſſe it ſelfe : and

yet to make the difference more apparant , behold

their pictures drawne by two excellent Maſters , res

ſeucra eſt verum gaudium,which if Sadneβe reſembles

not more liuely then mirth , let your iudgement de-

­termine , and now for mirth , I am ſure this was

made, it is ſo like her, riſu inepto, res ineptior nulla eſt;

if you define mirth without laughing, you ſpeake

of ſomewhat els, and leaue your errand behind you,

but it hath been ſo often determined, that they are ſo

farre from all one , as they are not ſo much as alike :

as further to labour in ſo manifeſt a truth, will rather

obſcure,then inlighten it.       

       I will then include this queſtion in this definitiue

ſentence, falſo de laetitia opinantur ſiquidem ab vtriſq,

gaudio ſcilicet & natura, diuerſa eſt , it hath not onely

loſt the challenge to ioy , but to nature ; hee then

that drew man within the compaſſe of animal riſi-

bile , was rather a confeſſor to good companions,                             ||



then a wiſe ſurueyor of the little world of man.

     And now to conclude, if thou haſt but Melan-

­choly enough to ſuſpend thy opinion, whatſoeuer

thou art , thou haſt me in the power of thy cenſure :

I doubt not but you ſhall bee beholding to your

iudgement, to free mee from the hereſie of Para-


     If ſome other thinke, that I haue reſtrained the li-

­berty of man, in commending Sadneβe vnto him :

let him know, I haue not determined it the end, but

the way onely; an entry or paſſage , that of the o-

ther ſide , hath a world much more ſpacious and

pleaſant, then that of this ſide , comprehended by

mirth : which is little, poore and tranſitory : if yet

there be ſome that will bring this euidence for their

libertie, Laetitia tuuenem, fraus decet triſtis ſenem , it

is but like a licence to eate fleſh in Lent, for them

that are weake and ſickly;or like a lawe that prohibi-

­ted all perſons to weare gay clothes, and Iewels, but

players and curtiſans : which was then taken for a

marke of ſcorne, not for a priuiledge of grace and

aduantage : which if they ſhallpleaſe to take ſo too,

they ſhall haue the leſſe to anſwere for , and I ſhall

neither haue loſt my labour, nor their fauour: if not,

I muſt yet challenge the allowance of the wiſeſt,

which are the oldeſt, who if they ſhould yeeld to an

extreme, would rather ratifie that Philoſopher that

euer wept, then this that tooke no more pittie of

       himſelfe, and of the madnes of mankind,

             then to ſpend his life in laughter.


                               F I N I S.




































The firſt proofe

of her goodneſſe

[Cornwallis’s own note]












What Mirth is

[Cornwallis’s own note]





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A true deſcrip-

tion of Sad-


[Cornwallis’s own note]














































Women enemies

to true Sad-


[Cornwallis’s own note]
























































































































































































































































[Cornwallis’s own note]


















































Sadneſſe ador-


[Cornwallis’s own note]




Mirth not al-

wayes accepta-

ble to the beſt

[Cornwallis’s own note]

[1] Typo for “fornices”.

[2] Typo for “praua”.

[3] Typo for “annorū”.

[4] Typo for “ſidera”.

[5] Typo for “vadit”.

[6] Typo for “eſt”.

[7] Typo for “Philopeomen”.

[8] Typo for “proſeſſion”.

[9] The document uploaded on EEBO, from which the transcription was made, is comsumed and unreadable.